New Cancer Treatment

Photodynamic therapy method
The role of photodynamic therapy is based on the photodynamic effect. This is an aerobic biological effects of molecules involved with the photosensitive reaction. The process is a particular wavelength of laser light absorbed by the photosensitizer to the organization are excited, and excited state energy transfer to the photosensitizer again around the oxygen to generate highly reactive singlet oxygen, singlet oxygen and the adjacent bio- the oxidation of macromolecules, resulting in cytotoxicity, leading to cell damage and death.
Photodynamic effect of the three elements of photosensitizer, light and oxygen exposure. Because photodynamic therapy is carried out in vivo, biopsy is oxygen, so the light in clinical practice in the treatment of the main factors driving force is the photosensitizer and light irradiation. Photodynamic activity, light absorption properties and targeting properties, determine their clinical availability and scope of application. Radiation wavelength accuracy, reliability, output stability and projection important in determining treatment controllable factors.
Photodynamic effect can be used to treat the two diseases, the premise is based more on the specific lesion uptake and retention can photosensitizer and the target site but also more susceptible to light irradiation. Only in this way, a strong photodynamic effect will occur, in order to fully destroy diseased tissue. In general, malignant entities, some of the precancerous lesions and some benign lesions may be more to photosensitizer uptake and retention, as long as these lesions in the laser fiber to reach the range of exposure, there may be indications for photodynamic therapy. Photodynamic therapy, in addition to conversion of light energy generated in the process of singlet oxygen and free radicals can directly kill diseased cells, but also because the process-induced capillary endothelial damage and blood clots caused by the local microcirculation, and further lead to disease ischemic tissue necrosis.
Photodynamic therapy in two steps to complete. First, the injection of photosensitizer to the patient. Then, the laser irradiation area of the lesion.
Photosensitizer currently used clinically is PHOTOFRIN ®, after injection, patients usually need to wait 40-50 minutes before laser irradiation. This is because at this time of the photosensitizer in diseased tissue concentration remained at a high level, while the surrounding normal tissue photosensitizer concentration has been reduced to low levels. Chose this time according to the light, can effectively kill diseased tissue, and reduce damage to surrounding normal tissue, for the best selective killing effect.
Photodynamic therapy of radiation, only play the role of photosensitizer activation energy without too much focus, exposure zone will not cause significant temperature rise, the heat will not cause tissue damage. Usually laser surgery, the use of high-energy laser beam is generated by local heat, to cutting, vaporization, or coagulation lesions, photodynamic therapy and so the traditional distinction between the nature of laser surgery, photodynamic therapy is a photochemical reaction induced The biochemical process, and laser surgery is a purely physical action process.
HIFU (High-intensity focused Utrasound)
A high-energy focused ultrasound (high-intensityfocusedultrasound, HIFU) treatment principle: heat effect is different from the low-power 1.1 focused ultrasound, HIFU treatment for high-intensity ultrasound can be focused on the treatment area, in 0.5 seconds can rapidly target area tissue temperature soared to above 70 ℃, the rapid emergence of cellular protein coagulation necrosis (tumor death)
High-energy focused ultrasound (high-intensity focused ultrasound, HIFU) treatment principles:

1. Heat Effect
Different from the low-power focused ultrasound, HIFU treatment for high-intensity ultrasound can be focused on the treatment area, in 0.5 seconds can rapidly target to regional organizations, the temperature soared above 70 ℃, the rapid emergence of cellular protein coagulation necrosis (tumor cell death critical point temperature in 42.5 ~ 43.0 ℃, while the normal cells was 45 ℃, the liver, the local temperature exceeds 58 ℃ to cause tissue coagulation necrosis).
2. Cavitation
By the strong expansion and contraction of the bubble movement, the tumor cells to produce mechanical damage.
HIFU technology is a modern combination of engineering and medicine and the development of the product, its biological effects is the use of ultrasound, through certain technical means, to transmit sound waves to focus on in vitro lesions in vivo. As part of the strong focus on energy deposition, tissue temperature can rise to the moment more than 65 ℃, destruction of lesions targeted to reach the goal. This technique can achieve the required precision surgical precision "cut" (ablate) the purpose of diseased tissue, which is also known as HIFU surgery. The need to use invasive means to destroy the diseased tissue in the body, is non-invasive therapy, it is also known as non-invasive HIFU surgery. This will greatly reduce unnecessary for normal tissue damage. HIFU is currently the most widely used in clinical applications in cancer therapy.

A series of studies have shown that, HIFU treatment, the body is often enhanced anti-tumor immunity, which may play a secondary anti-tumor effect. Can be part of the surgery + biological treatment to achieve the effect. This regard with the tumor is destroyed, the tumor / host advantage can be improved, on the other hand, when the tumor tissue destruction with HIFU, change its antigenicity, is more conducive to stimulate the body’s immune system.
Ultrasound therapy is a stage in the development of ultrasound hyperthermia technology. HIFU technology is developed on the basis of ultrasound hyperthermia, and thermal effects in the important role of HIFU treatment was underway, the HIFU hyperthermia can be included in a broad range, but the HIFU treatment has its unique concept. Is now generally accepted view is that if the treatment temperature can not rise to the organization for more than 65 ℃, which can not be treated so that instantaneous tissue coagulation necrosis, can not be conformal, and real-time treatment called HIFU treatment is not.

Cryotherapy is the use of the material produced by low-temperature cooling, on the lesion tissue, causing a series of physical and chemical changes, leading to tissue necrosis, and therapeutic purposes and treatment.

Theoretical principles
Rapid cooling to freeze the body of local tissue to treat disease. Cells frozen by a sudden, rapid formation of ice crystals body fluids, resulting in cell damage, remove the cooling source, namely the gradual emergence of edema, necrosis, loss, and ultimately scarring. The main clinical for the treatment of benign or malignant tumor surface, such as warts, moles, small vascular tumors, polyps, commonly used refrigerants such as liquid nitrogen, ethylene oxide, dry ice, can also be used thermoelectric cooling.
冷When frozen, frozen produce is a combined effect of biology, and new normal cells, can be as extreme freezing and irreversible damage, destruction. -20 ℃ below normal in the organization, the more than 1 minute can lead to necrosis. The mechanism is more complex now that when the temperature is low, the formation of intracellular ice crystals, resulting in cell dehydration, shrinkage, cell damage until death. Therefore, the refrigerant temperature is lower, the greater the role of cell damage, in addition, low temperature also makes the cell membrane lipoprotein complex class variability, resulting in local blood circulation, to further promote the damaging effects. Melting period of freezing damage of the organization there has been so repeatedly freezing and thawing once freezing and thawing than the more destructive, with clinical significance.
Cryotherapy can destroy tumors, experiments show that the destructive effects of freezing on the tumor cells larger than normal. Pigment cells are more sensitive to low temperature, the use of cryotherapy skin benign and malignant tumors, may well be an ideal of beauty treatment.
Refrigerant currently used are: liquid nitrogen (-196 ℃), liquid oxygen (-183 ℃), also known as solid carbon dioxide ice (-70 ℃) nitrous oxide (-40 ℃), Freon 12 (- 60 ℃) , Freon 13 (-90 ℃), Freon 22 (-70 ℃) and semiconductor cooling device (-30 ℃) and so on. Liquid nitrogen and solid carbon dioxide which is more commonly used, especially in the lowest temperature of liquid nitrogen cooling, inexpensive, safe, is the most widely used refrigerant.

Cryotherapy, also known as cold therapy, physical therapy is one of the tumor. Used to rapidly Produce ultra-low-speed machines, cooling in the lesion, the lesions become of, necrosis, or loss, in order to achieve the purpose of treatment of cancer. Cryotherapy As an emerging medical technology in benign and malignant tumors were treated in To rapid development.

Freeze under certain conditions, can save the organization, on the other hand can be destroyed Organization, use of cryotherapy is the latter role. Frozen cause health The main principle of cell death thing is:

1. intracellular ice crystals when frozen and ice crystals to form the mechanical damage. The melting of frozen, especially the slow nature of the cells can melt small ice crystals gathered into big ice, the cells were damaged.
2. when the extracellular fluid gradually frozen concentrate, causing intracellular penetration pressure differences, caused the leakage of intracellular fluid cell dehydration and shrinkage.
3. cell dehydration, shrinkage and allows the electrolyte concentration, enzyme activity is subject to freezing interference promotes cell poisoning and injury.
4. PH value of cells frozen at lower acidic, increasing the protein qualitative change.
5. freezing can cause degeneration of membrane lipoproteins, so that the cell membrane rupture.
6. In summary, the frozen cell death leading to a variety of biological factors the combined result. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy is the most widely used in cold freeze agents, low boiling point it (-196 ‘C), use of safe, wide source of pan. There is also nitrous oxide, solid carbon dioxide, Freon, Hyperbaric oxygen, liquid oxygen, nitrous oxide, also can be used as medical refrigerant. Pro Bed for the treatment of cancer freezer with liquid nitrogen freezers, high-pressure oxygen air "cold knife", thermoelectric cooling apparatus. Currently frozen for clinical side. There are five general methods:

1. contact with frozen: frozen head gently placed on the tumor surface pressure freezing.
2. into the freezer: frozen head into the needle within the tumor, to achieve deeper parts of the tumor treatment.
3. poured into the funnel: If the liquid nitrogen poured through the funnel cavity cancer.
4. spray directly: such as liquid nitrogen directly onto the lesion, for surface diffuse large and rugged plot of superficial tumors.
5. cotton swabs or cotton balls dip method, such as hemangioma, papilloma; white, Warts, etc., choose the appropriate size of a sterile cotton swab, dip enough liquid nitrogen, which vertical contact with lesions, due to the scope and depth of freezing is easy to control, the more combined thin scar.

Frozen frozen more time depending on the method and the size of the tumor, usually 30 seconds – 30 minutes, usually frozen frozen 15 minutes maximum effect 80% to 90%.

For more details, please purchased Modern Chinese Western Medicine Cancer Treatment Introduction for reference.